Espacio profesional sobre esquizofrenia, depresión y trastorno bipolar

Artículos

2021
Javaheripour N, Li M, Chand T, Krug A, Kircher T, Dannlowski U, Nenadić I, Hamilton JP, Sacchet MD, Gotlib IH, Walter H, Frodl T, Grimm S, Harrison BJ, Wolf CR, Olbrich S, van Wingen G, Pezawas L, Parker G, Hyett MP, Sämann PG, Hahn T, Steinsträter O, Jansen A, Yuksel D, Kämpe R, Davey CG, Meyer B, Bartova L, Croy I, Walter M, Wagner G
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormal neural circuitry. It can be measured by assessing functional connectivity (FC) at resting-state functional MRI, that may help identifying neural markers of MDD and provide further efficient diagnosis and monitor treatment outcomes. The main aim of the present study is to investigate, in an unbiased way, functional alterations in patients with MDD using a large multi-center dataset from the PsyMRI consortium including 1546 participants from 19 centers ( www.psymri.com ). After applying strict exclusion criteria, the final sample consisted of 606 MDD patients (age: 35.8 ± 11.9 y.o.; females: 60.7%) and 476 healthy participants (age: 33.3 ± 11.0 y.o.; females: 56.7%). We found significant relative hypoconnectivity within somatosensory motor (SMN), salience (SN) networks and between SMN, SN, dorsal attention (DAN), and visual (VN) networks in MDD patients. No significant differences were detected within the default mode (DMN) and frontoparietal networks (FPN). In addition, alterations in network organization were observed in terms of significantly lower network segregation of SMN in MDD patients. Although medicated patients showed significantly lower FC within DMN, FPN, and SN than unmedicated patients, there were no differences between medicated and unmedicated groups in terms of network organization in SMN. We conclude that the network organization of cortical networks, involved in processing of sensory information, might be a more stable neuroimaging marker for MDD than previously assumed alterations in higher-order neural networks like DMN and FPN.
Origen
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] - [cited 2021 Oct 18]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
2021
Lv D, Ou Y, Wang Y, Ma J, Zhan C, Yang R, Chen Y, Shang T, Jia C, Sun L, Zhang G, Sun Z, Li J, Wang X, Guo W, Li P
Previous studies explored the whole-brain functional connectome using the degree approach in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, whether the altered degree values can be used to discriminate OCD from healthy controls (HCs) remains unclear.
Origen
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] - [cited 2021 Oct 5]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
2021
Xie Z, Jiang W, Deng M, Wang W, Xie X, Feng X, Shi Y, Zhang X, Song D, Yuan Z, Wang Y
The main characteristics of panic disorder (PD) include recurrent panic attacks and persistent worry, accompanied by other physical and cognitive symptoms. While recent studies have revealed that gut bacteria play an important role in anxiety and depression, little is known about the relationship between oral microbiota and PD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore a possible correlation between oral microbiota and PD. We conducted 16S rRNA sequencing to compare differences in the oral microbiota of patients with PD (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 40). Patients with PD exhibited higher alpha diversity (abundance and evenness) in their oral microbiota than healthy controls, while analysis of beta diversity revealed that the two groups differed in microbial community composition. Moreover, the relative abundance of 61 genera differed between them. Overall, PD resulted in distinct oral microbial profiles that could be potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.
Origen
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] - [cited 2021 Oct 22]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
2021
Zhou M, Zhuo L, Ji R, Gao Y, Yao H, Feng R, Zhang L, Huang G, Huang X
Schizophrenia is a disorder resulting from aberrant brain networks and circuits. In the current study, we aimed to investigate specific network alterations in adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS) and to help identify the neurophysiological mechanisms of this adolescent disorder. We recruited forty-one subjects, including 20 AOS patients and 21 matched healthy controls (HCs), and we acquired brain images to examine the specific changes in functional network patterns using degree centrality (DC), which quantifies the strength of the local functional connectivity hubs. Whole-brain correlation analysis was applied to assess the relationships between clinical characteristics and DC measurements. The AOS group exhibited increased DC in the right inferior frontal lobe, right fusiform gyrus and right thalamus (p < 0.05, AlphaSim correction). Whole-brain correlation analysis found that the DC value in the right parahippocampus was positively correlated with PANSS-positive symptom scores (r = 0.80); DC in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) was positively correlated with PANSS-negative symptom scores (r = 0.79); DC in the left precuneus was positively correlated with self-certainty (SC) scores (r = 0.70); and DC in the left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) was negatively correlated with self-reflectiveness (SR) scores (r = 0.69). We conclude that frontoparietal network and cortico-thalamo-cortical pathway disruptions could play key roles in the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying AOS. In AOS patients, the right parahippocampus and SPL are important structures associated with positive and negative symptoms, respectively, and the left precuneus and MFG contribute to deficits in cognitive insights.
Origen
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] - [cited 2021 Oct 5]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
2021
Lin A, Elbezanti WO, Schirling A, Ahmed A, Van Duyne R, Cocklin S, Klase Z
The HIV-1 pandemic is a significant challenge to the field of medicine. Despite advancements in antiretroviral (ART) development, 38 million people worldwide still live with this disease without a cure. A significant barrier to the eradication of HIV-1 lies in the persistently latent pool that establishes early in the infection. The "shock and kill" strategy relies on the discovery of a latency-reversing agent (LRA) that can robustly reactivate the latent pool and not limit immune clearance. We have found that a benzodiazepine (BDZ), that is commonly prescribed for panic and anxiety disorder, to be an ideal candidate for latency reversal. The BDZ Alprazolam functions as an inhibitor of the transcription factor RUNX1, which negatively regulates HIV-1 transcription. In addition to the displacement of RUNX1 from the HIV-1 5'LTR, Alprazolam potentiates the activation of STAT5 and its recruitment to the viral promoter. The activation of STAT5 in cytotoxic T cells may enable immune activation which is independent of the IL-2 receptor. These findings have significance for the potential use of Alprazolam in a curative strategy and to addressing the neuroinflammation associated with neuroHIV-1.
Origen
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] - [cited 2021 Oct 5]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
2021
Amritphale A, Fonarow GC, Amritphale N, Omar B, Crook ED
There are few studies looking into adult, all-cause and age-group-specific unplanned readmissions. The predictors of such unplanned readmissions for all inpatient encounters remain obscure.
Origen
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] - [cited 2021 Oct 18]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
2021
Eddy CM, Hansen PC
Thought action fusion (TAF), whereby internal thoughts are perceived to exert equivalent effects to external actions, is a form of magical thinking. Psychiatric disorders associated with TAF (e.g. schizophrenia; obsessive compulsive disorder) can feature atypical social cognition. We explored relationships between TAF and empathy in 273 healthy young adults. TAF was directly correlated with higher personal distress, but not perspective taking, fantasy or empathic concern. TAF moral (the belief that thinking about an action/behaviour is morally equivalent to actually performing that behaviour) was predicted by emotion contagion, alexithymia and need for closure. TAF likelihood (the belief that simply having a thought about an event makes that event more likely to occur) was predicted by personal distress, sense of agency and alexithymia. Both cognitive (TAF and negative sense of agency) and emotional (emotion contagion, alexithymia) factors contributed to personal distress. TAF, negative sense of agency and personal distress mediated the effect of emotion contagion on alexithymia. Our findings reveal complex relationships between emotional processes and TAF, shedding further light on the social cognitive profile of disorders associated with magical thinking. Furthermore, they emphasise the potential importance of alexithymia and emotion contagion as mediators or potential risk factors in the development of psychiatric symptoms linked to TAF, such as intrusive thoughts about harm to others.
Origen
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] - [cited 2021 Oct 5]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
2021
Goodyear K, Vasaturo-Kolodner TR, Kenna GA, Swift RM, Leggio L, Haass-Koffler CL
Participants who are enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may be more motivated to change their behaviors after being enrolled in a study and that motivation may vary by treatment status.
Origen
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] - [cited 2021 Oct 5]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
2021
Spielberg JM, Sadeh N, Cha J, Matyi MA, Anand A
Individuals with/at risk for Bipolar Disorder (BD) often present initially for the treatment of depressive symptoms. Unfortunately, pharmacological treatments for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) can be iatrogenic, precipitating mania which may not have otherwise occurred. Current diagnostic procedures rely solely on self-reported/observable symptoms, and thus alternative data sources, like brain network properties, are needed to supplement current self-report/observation-based indices of risk for mania.
Origen
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] - [cited 2021 Oct 18]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
2021
Fortuna KL, Myers AL, Bianco C, Mois G, Mbao M, Morales MJ, Brinen AP, Bartels SJ, Hamilton J
Adults with serious mental illness commonly experience comorbid chronic physical conditions and experience a reduced life expectancy of 10-25 years compared to the general population (Saha et al. in Arch Gen Psychiatry 64(10):1123-31.  2007; Hayes et al. in Acta Psychiatr Scand 131(6):417-25. 2015; Walker et al. in JAMA Psychiatry 72(4):334-41. 2015). Dimensions of personal recovery may have real-world implications that extend beyond functional and mental health outcomes to impact the self-directed health and wellness of adults with serious mental illness. This study examined the predictive utility of the Recovery Assessment Scale with respect to medical self-efficacy, self-management, psychiatric symptoms, and community functioning for adults with serious mental illness. Data were derived from a secondary analysis of baseline and 10-month data collected from a randomized control trial with adults aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, or major depressive disorder (N=56). A linear regression was conducted to examine the predictive value of total baseline RAS scores on self-efficacy at 10 months while controlling for study group. This model significantly predicted self-efficacy (F (2, 53) = 13.28, p < .001) and accounted for 36.1% of the variance. Total baseline RAS scores significantly predicted self-efficacy (β = 059, p < .001); specifically, higher baseline RAS scores were associated with greater self-efficacy. A greater degree of recovery may facilitate greater medical self-efficacy in managing chronic disease in people diagnosed with a serious mental illness. Future intervention approaches may consider recovery-focused therapeutic targets such as peer support to promote self-efficacy to manage chronic diseases in people with serious mental illness.
Origen
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] - [cited 2021 Oct 18]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/